Velocity Distribution Curve Return to Main Page Velocity Distribution Curve
Freeze DryingValidationContactLyophilization Problem Solving and Chemical Kinetic IntroductionNarlin B. Beaty, Ph.D.


  • Sublimation rates are a prime consideration when moving a cycle from one lyophilizer to another.

  • Drying rate is affected by different dryer design and function. Often the new lyophilizer will not execute exactly the same sequence of steps as the original or it may need changes in the PLC ladder logic.

  • Condenser efficiency versus thermal load will vary the rate and quality of the sublimation.

  • Freezing conditions or super cooling differences may change the water crystallization characteristics and lead to fundamental changes in the product lyophile.

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© 2005 Narlin Bennet Beaty, Ph.D.